There are five types of mountains and below we explain the characteristics of each.
1. Folded Mountains
Fold mountains are the most common type of mountains. Examples of fold mountains are the (Asia), the Alps (Europe). They are formed due to collision of two plates, causing folding of the Earth’s crust. The fold that descends on both sides is called anticline; whereas, the fold that ascends from a common low point (on both sides) is called syncline.
2. Fault-Block Mountains
As the name suggests, fault-block mountains are formed when blocks of rock materials slide along faults in the Earth’s crust. There are two types of block mountains, namely the lifted and tilted. In the former type, the mountain has two steep sides; whereas, the tilted type has one steep side and gentle sloping side. Examples of fault-block mountains are the Sierra Nevada mountains and the Rocky Mountains (North America).
3. Volcanic Mountains
Volcanic mountains are formed due to volcanic eruptions, for e.g. Mount Fuji (Japan). They are formed when volcanic magma erupts and piles up on the surface of the Earth.
4. Dome Mountains
Dome mountains are formed when the hot magma rises from the mantle and uplifts the overlying sedimentary layer of the Earth’s crust. In the process, the magma is not erupted, but it cools down and forms the core of the mountain. Example of dome mountain is the Navajo Mountain in Utah. They are called dome mountains due to their appearance that resembles dome shape.
5. Plateau Mountains (Erosion Mountains)
Plateau mountains are formed by erosion rather than internal activity. Plateau mountains have large flat areas that have been pushed above sea level. They can also be formed by layers of lava. The mountains in New Zealand are examples of plateau mountains.
Mountains inspire awe in any human person who has a soul. They remind us of our frailty, our unimportance, of the briefness of our span upon this earth. They touch the heavens, and sail serenely at an altitude beyond even the imaginings of a mere mortal.